The history of New York begins around 10,000 BCE, when the first Native Americans arrived. By 1100 CE, New York's main tribes, the Iroquoian and Algonquian cultures, had developed. New York was discovered by the French in 1524 and first claimed in 1609 by the Dutch. As part of New Netherland, the colony was important in the fur trade and eventually became an agricultural resource thanks to the patroon system. In 1664, England renamed the colony New York. New York City gained prominence in the 18th century as a major trading port in the Thirteen Colonies.
New York Province:
Large manors emerged during the 18th century, including Livingston, Cortlandt, Philipsburg, and Rensselaerswyck, that represented more than half of the colony's undeveloped land. The Province of New York thrived during this time, its economy strengthened by Long Island and Hudson Valley agriculture, in conjunction with trade and artisanal activity at the Port of New York. The colony was a breadbasket and lumberyard for the British sugar colonies in the Caribbean. New York's population grew substantially during this century: from the first colonial census (1698) to the last (1771), the province grew ninefold, from 18,067 to 168,007. Europe, including English, Scottish, Palatine German, and Irish immigrants, was the main source, though the slave trade brought in many Africans. New York at one time had the largest African slave population north of the Mason-Dixon Line; the group peaked in 1720 at 16% of New York's population.
Merchant and landlord factions dominated New York's political scene. Manorial families also had significant influence. The colony was the center of conflicts between the British and French throughout the 18th century. The French and Indian Wars raged on and off for more than 70 years. New York was one of only two colonies that regularly housed British troops before 1755. The fighting pitted the native bands against each other, as the Europeans formed expedient alliances with them. Even during wars, the colonists sought control of Iroquoia, while the confederacy strained to stay together. Regardless of the Covenant Chain, the British and French continued to expand into Indian land; the French eventually found themselves being punished by the Iroquois through bloody raids in 1701 that forced the French to briefly retreat.
The modern New York City was originally formed when in 1898 Manhattan, Brooklyn, the Bronx, Queens and Staten Island were established as separate boroughs, and joined together to form what was originally called Greater New York. A borough is a government for each of those five components. The five boroughs are also now five separate counties.
The city had become famous throughout the world because of its industry, commerce and communication in the first half of the 20th century. The city had continuous development, with an increasing number of subways and railroads being constructed.
After World War I ended, the city’s condition strengthened in respect to its poverty level and employment level. There was a tremendous improvement in its infrastructure as well. The city received immense help from Fiorello La Guardia and Robert Moses in creating new parks, rebuilding the streets that required help and looking after the zonal controls.
In the 1930s, NYC saw development of many skyscrapers. NYC built one of the tallest skyscrapers in the world and featured a number of Art-Deco masterpieces in this period. After World War II, the city became even more developed with the growth of more bridges, parks and parkways.
In 1855 the first mayor of New York City, Fernando Wood, was elected from Tammany Hall. Fernando is commonly referred to as a colourful mayor because of his dedicated work for the people of New York City. He also served as a United States Representative and as Chairman of the Committee On Ways And Means.
In the 19th Century, the city had to go through some alterations when the visionary development proposal called the Commissioners’ Plan of 1811 was imposed. With the commencement of this plan, the city’s street grid was expanded to surround all of Manhattan. This plan also helped in opening the Erie Canal, which connects the Atlantic port to the Midwestern United States and Canada’s agricultural markets. In 1835, New York City beat Philadelphia to became the largest city in United States.
NYC was pressed by the members of the old merchant aristocracy to build a central park, and a design competition for the park was held in 1857. This was the first landscape park that was built in America.
After the American Civil War (1861-1865), which was also known as War Between the States, the number of immigrants from Europe increased tremendously, and the city became a shelter for millions of people. The Statue Of Liberty was built in 1866 to hallow the role of United States as a shelter.
From 1664 to 1783 there were many major changes in New York City. The city originally got its name in 1664, when the area was taken up by the English and they named the city after the Duke Of York And Albany. Later in 1673, the Dutch had conquered the place for a short period of time and renamed it New Orange. There are still some places in New York which have the names given by the Dutch, like Flushing deriving from a Dutch town Vlissingen, Harlem which was known as Haarlem, and Brooklyn derived from Breukelen.
During this time the native population of America, the Lenape, were beginning to diminish. By 1700, approximately only 200 Lenapes where considered to be existing.
The city had suffered multiple tense times in 1741. There were threats that the city is going to be burnt down. This was plotted by the African-Americans with some help from the whites. Many people were held guilty - 101 blacks and 4 whites were convicted of arson, 13 blacks were burnt alive, and 4 whites and 18 blacks were hanged to death.
During the British military rule, New York City had two major bombings, where many of the city’s places were destroyed. This city also became the major city for political and military operations in North America. Many American soldiers were captured as prisoners of war by the British, and were kept across the East River, Brooklyn.
The now prevailing Congress of United States was first founded in 1785, when the Congress met under Article of Confederation in New York. This article was the first character for the United States. It cites the operations of the government and also has the authority to give an official name for a new nation.
On September 13th, 1788, New York City became the capital of the United States. This city was the first capital for United States under U. S. Constitutional Convention. Also, the first President of United States, George Washington, was appointed on April 30, 1789, at the Federal Hall on Wall Street. NYC remained the capital till 1790, after which Philadelphia was made the new capital of the United States.
With the help of Alexander Hamilton, the first Secretary of the Treasury, policies and practices were implemented as a result of which New York City grew as a great economic centre. In 1825 the opening of the Erie Canal, which connected the Atlantic Ports and the Northern American’s interior agricultural markets, also acted as a great benefit for economic development.
When the Great Irish Famine hit Ireland in 1845 and 1852, many Irish immigrated to NYC. During the time of famine, the situation of the Irish was very grim, with many people suffering from starvation and diseases. So they were forced to move to New York City, and by 1850 there was one part of the city which was completely occupied by the immigrants.
The original habitants of New York City were Lenape. These Native Americans were a group of people who had similar culture and language. They spoke in a language known as Algonquian which is now referred to as Unami. Lanape are usually referred to as Unami place name like ‘Raritan’. The modern day Brooklyn and New Jersey were known as ‘Canarsee’ and ‘Hackenscak’ in the prehistory. This band of people made an efficient usage of the waterways in New York City by fishing, trading, going for hunting trips and having wars at times. Names of many places in New York City keep the presence of Lenape alive like Raritan Bay, Canarsia and Brooklyn.
When the Europeans had arrived, Lanape’s had already learned how to make refined ways of managing their resources and hunting, and they even learned how to cultivate vegetation through Slash and Burn Technique. They would even gather large quantities of fish and shellfish from the bay. By the time the Europeans settled there were nearly 15,000 Lanape in 80 settlement sites in total.
In 1638 Willem Kieft was designated as the Director General. But five years later the peace of the Native American were disturbed with the Kieft’s War. There was a sad end for eighty natives who were victimised in the Pavonia Massacre. The privilege of being self-government was given to the colony in 1652 after Peter Stuyvesant was made the Director General in May 27th, 1647.
The history of New York City had begun with the voyage of the Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano. In the honor of Francis I of France, King of France and count of Angouleme in the Charente region in France, Giovanni had named the present-day New York City as New Angouleme. New Angouleme had acquired its name from the French word Nouvelle-Angouleme in 1524. After 1625, this place was referred to as New Amsterdam as it had become a Dutch colonial settlement. In 1664 the English conquered it and renamed it New York.
New York City area had faced numerous battles of the American Revolutionary War in which one of the largest battles was the Battle of Brooklyn. The American Revolutionary War, also known as American War of Independence (1775-1783), was the war between Great Britain and 13 British colonies in North America, but it ended up as the Global War between many European powers. The Battle of Brooklyn or Battle of Brooklyn Heights was one of the largest battles of the American Revolutionary War. After the battle was fought, on August 27, 1776, the United States was declared as an independent nation.
After the British won the battle they resided in the city from September 1776 to late 1783. In front of the Federal Halls, George Washington was introduced at the first President of United States on April 30, 1789. New York City was the capital of United of States until 1790.